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Mycotoxins are ubiquitous compounds found in the natural life cycle of food- producing plants. They have a range of diverse chemical and physical properties and toxicological effects on man and animal. Mycotoxins are considered the most important contaminants of the food chain due to their chronic adverse effects on health and the economy. Mycotoxins are known as the 21th century “Great Masquerader” due to its complex natural history involving different tissues and resembling different diseases at each stage in its evolution. Mycotoxins can induce a variety of clinical symptoms including epistaxis, conjunctivitis, coughing, apnea, wheezing, vomiting and nausea. Some mycotoxins induce acute pulmonary hemorrhage, bone marrow failure and pneumonia. Knowledge about these symptoms enables the clinician to ask questions for possible exposure to the main classes of mycotoxins to protect children from sources of such exposure. These sources may include food, clothes, furniture and indoor air at home. Early childhood exposure to mycotoxins may be critical determinants of later health effects. Exposure in utero and through early infancy may additionally be important. Several well-known diseases such as neural tube defects, liver and esophageal cancers are associated with the consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food. Knowledge of previous short or long term exposure to mycotoxins may help paediatricians to more accurately diagnose and provide treatment options to children and their families. The current review discusses the problems associated with the occurrence of different common mycotoxins in children’s food and the possible halal strategies to counteract these problems.
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